On the Love of Persons in authority with the Wives of other People
Kings and their ministers have no access to the abodes of others, and moreover their mode of living is constantly watched and observed and imitated by the people at large, just as the animal world, seeing the sun rise, get up after him, and when he sits in the evening, lie down again in the same way. Persons in authority should not therefore do any improper act in public, as such are impossible from their position, and would be deserving of censure. But if they find that such an act is necessary to be done, they should make use of the proper means as described in the following paragraphs.
The head man of the village, the king’s officer employed there, and the man1
whose business it is to glean corn, can gain over female villagers simply by
asking them. It is on this account that this class of woman are called unchaste
women by voluptuaries.
The union of the above mentioned men with this class of woman takes place on the occasions of unpaid labour, of filling the granaries in their houses, of taking things in and out of the house, of cleaning the houses, of working in the fields, and of purchasing cotton, wool, flax, hemp, and thread, and at the season of the purchase, sale, and exchange of various other articles, as well as at the time of doing various other works. In the same way the superintendents of cow pens enjoy the women in the cow pens; and the officers, who crave the superintendence of widows, of the women who are without supporters, and of women who have left their husbands, have sexual intercourse with these women. The intelligent accomplish their object by wandering at night in the village, and while villagers also unite with the wives of their sons, being much alone with them. Lastly the superintendents of markets have a great deal to do with the female villagers at the time of their making purchases in the market.
During the festival of the eighth moon, i.e. during the bright half of the month
of Nargashirsha, as also during the moonlight festival of the month of Kartika,
and the spring festival of Chaitra, the women of cities and towns generally visit the women of the king’s harem in the royal palace. These visitors go to the several apartments of the women of the harem, as they are acquainted with them, and pass the night in conversation, and in proper sports, and
amusement, and go away in the morning. On such occasions a female
attendant of the king (previously acquainted with the woman whom the king
desires) should loiter about, and accost this woman when she sets out to go
home, and induce her to come and see the amusing things in the palace.
Previous to these festivals even, she should have caused it to be intimated to
this woman that on the occasion of this festival she would show her all the
interesting things in the royal palace. Accordingly she should show her the
bower of the coral creeper, the garden house with its floor inlaid with precious stones, the bower of grapes, the building on the water, the secret passages in the walls of the palace, the pictures, the sporting animals, the machines, the birds, and the cages of the lions and the tigers. After this, when alone with her, she should tell her about the love of the king for her, and should describe to herthe good fortune which would attend upon her union with the king, giving her at the time a strict promise of secrecy. If the woman does not accept the offer, she should conciliate and please her with handsome presents befitting the position of the king, and having accompanied her for some distance should dismiss her with great affection.
Of the Causes of a Courtesan resorting to Men; of the means of attaching to herself the Man desired, and the kind of Man that it is desirable to be acquainted with
By having intercourse with men courtesans obtain sexuapleasure, as welas
their own maintenance. Now when a courtesan takes up with a man from love,the action is natural; but when she resorts to him for the purpose of getting money, her action is artificiaor forced. Even in the latter case, however, she should conduct herself as if her love were indeed natural, because men repose their confidence on those women who apparently love them. In making known her love to the man, she should show an entire freedom from avarice, and for the sake of her future credit she should abstain from acquiring money from him by unlawfumeans.
A courtesan, weldressed and wearing her ornaments, should sit or stand at the door of her house, and, without exposing herself too much, should look on the public road so as to be seen by the passers by, she being like an object on view for sale. She should form friendships with such persons as would enable her to separate men from other women, and attach them to herself, to repair her own misfortunes, to acquire wealth, and to protect her from being bullied, or set upon by persons with whom she may have dealings of some kind or another.
These persons are:
- The guards of the town, or the police
- The officers of the courts of justice
- Powerfumen, or men with interest
- Learned men
- Teachers of the sixty-four arts
- Pithamardas or confidants
- Vitas or parasites
- Vidushakas or jesters
- Flower sellers
- Vendors of spirits
And such other persons as may be found necessary for the particular object to be acquired.
The following kinds of men may be taken up with, simply for the purpose of
getting their money:
- Men of independent income
- Young men
- Men who are free from any ties
- Men who hold places of authority under the king
- Men who have secured their means of livelihood without difficulty
Of a Courtesan living with a Man as his Wife
When a courtesan is living as a wife with her lover, she should behave like a
chaste woman, and do everything to his satisfaction. Her duty in this respect, in short, is, that she should give him pleasure, but should not become attached to him, though behaving as if she were really attached.
Now the following is the manner in which she is to conduct herself, so as to
accomplish the above mentioned purpose. She should have a mother
dependent on her, one who should be represented as very harsh, and who
looked upon money as her chief object in life. In the event of there being no
mother, then an old and confidential nurse should play the same role. The
mother or nurse, on their part, should appear to be displeased with the lover,
and forcibly take her away from him. The woman herself should always show
pretended anger, dejection, fear, and shame on this account, but should not
disobey the mother or nurse at any time.
Of the Means of getting Money; of the Signs of a Lover who is beginning to be Weary, and of the way to get rid of him
Money is got out of a lover in two ways:
By natural or lawful means, and by artifices. Old authors are of opinion that
when a courtesan can get as much money as she wants from her lover, she
should not make use of artifice. But Vatsyayana lays down that though she may get some money from him by natural means, yet when she makes use of
artifice he gives her doubly more, and therefore artifice should be resorted to
for the purpose of extorting money from him at alevents.
Now the artifices to be used for getting money from her lover are as follows:
- Taking money from him on different occasions, for the purpose of purchasing various articles, such as ornaments, food, drink, flowers, perfumes and clothes, and either not buying them, or getting from him more than their cost.
- Praising his intelligence to his face.
- Pretending to be obliged to make gifts on occasion of festivals connected with vows, trees, gardens, temples, or tanks.
- Pretending that at the time of going to his house, her jewels have been stolen either by the king’s guards, or by robbers.
- Alleging that her property has been destroyed by fire, by the falling of her house, or by the carelessness of her servants.
- Pretending to have lost the ornaments of her lover along with her own.
- Causing him to hear through other people of the expenses incurred by her in coming to see him.
- Contracting debts for the sake of her lover.
- Disputing with her mother on account of some expense incurred by her for her lover, and which was not approved of by her mother.
- Not going to parties and festivities in the houses of her friends for the want of
- presents to make to them, she having previously informed her lover of the valuable presents given to her by these very friends.
- Not performing certain festive rites under the pretence that she has no money to perform them with.
- Engaging artists to do something for her lover.
- Entertaining physicians and ministers for the purpose of attaining some object.
- Assisting friends and benefactors both on festive occasions, and in misfortune.
- Performing household rites.
- Having to pay the expenses of the ceremony of marriage of the son of a female friend.
- Having to satisfy curious wishes including her state of pregnancy.
- Pretending to be ill, and charging her cost of treatment.
- Having to remove the troubles of a friend.
- Selling some of her ornaments, so as to give her lover a present.
- Pretending to selsome of her ornaments, furniture, or cooking utensils to a trader, who has been already tutored how to behave in the matter.
- Having to buy cooking utensils of greater value than those of other people, so that they might be more easily distinguished, and not changed for others of an inferior description.
- Remembering the former favours of her lover, and causing them always to be spoken of by her friends and followers.
- Informing her lover of the great gains of other courtesans.
- Describing before them, and in the presence of her lover, her own great gains, and making them out to be greater even than theirs, though such may not have been really the case.
About a Reunion with a former Lover
When a courtesan abandons her present lover after all his wealth is exhausted, she may then consider about her reunion with a former lover. But she should return to him only if he has acquired fresh wealth, or is stilwealthy, and if he is still attached to her. And if this man be living at the time with some other woman she should consider well before she acts.
Now such a man can only be in one of the six following conditions:
He may have left the first woman of his own accord, and may even have left
another woman since then.
He may have been driven away from both women.
He may have left the one woman of her own accord, and been driven away
by the other.
He may have left the one woman of his own accord, and be living with
He may have been driven away from the one woman, and left the other of his
He may have been driven away by the one woman, and may be living with
Now if the man has left both women of his own accord, he should not be
resorted to, on account of the fickleness of his mind, and his indifference to the excellences of both of them. As regards the man who may have been driven away from both women, if he has been driven away from the last one because the woman could get more money from some other man, then he should be resorted to, for if attached to the first woman he would give her more money, through vanity and emulation to spite the other woman. But if he has been driven away by the woman on account of his poverty, or stinginess, he should not then be resorted to.
In the case of the man who may have left the one woman of his own accord,
and been driven away by the other, if he agrees to return to the former and
give her plenty of money beforehand, then he should be resorted to.
In the case of the man who may have left the one woman of his own accord,
and be living with another woman, the former (wishing to take up with him
again) should first ascertain if he left her in the first instance in the hope of
finding some particular excellence in the other woman, and that not having
found any such excellence, he was willing to come back to her, and to give her much money on account of his conduct, and on account of his affection still existing for her. Or, whether, having discovered many faults in the other woman, he would now see even more excellences in herself than actually exist, and would be prepared to give her much money for these qualities.
Of different kinds of Gain
When a courtesan is able to realize much money every day, by reason of many customers, she should not confine herself to a single lover; under such
circumstances, she should fix her rate for one night, after considering the place, the season, and the condition of the people, and having regard to her own good qualities and good looks, and after comparing her rates with those of other courtesans. She can inform her lovers, and friends, and acquaintances about these charges. If, however, she can obtain a great gain from a single lover, she may resort to him alone, and live with him like a wife.
Now the sages are of opinion that, when a courtesan has the chance of an equal gain from two lovers at the same time, a preference should be given to the one who would give her the kind of thing which she wants. But Vatsyayana says that the preference should be given to the one who gives her gold, because it cannot be taken back like some other things, it can be easily received, and is also the means of procuring anything that may be wished for. Of such things as gold, silver, copper, bell metal, iron, pots, furniture, beds, upper garments, under vestments, fragrant substances, vessels made of gourds, ghee, oil, corn, cattle, and other things of a like nature, the first – gold – is superior to all the others. When the same labour is required to gain any two lovers, or when the same kind of thing is to be got from each of them, the choice should be made by the advice of a friend, or it may be made from their personal qualities, or from the signs of good or bad fortune that may be connected with them.
When there are two lovers, one of whom is attached to the courtesan, and the
other is simply very generous, the sages say that the preference should be
given to the generous lover, but Vatsyayana is of opinion that the one who is
really attached to the courtesan should be preferred, because he can be made
to be generous, even as a miser gives money if he becomes fond of a woman,
but a mail who is simply generous cannot be made to love with real
attachment. But among those who are attached to her, if there is one who is
poor, and one who is rich, the preference is of course to be given to the latter.
When there are two lovers, one of whom is generous, and the other ready to do any service for the courtesan, some sages say that the one who is ready to do the service should be preferred, but Vatsyayana is of opinion that a man who does a service thinks that he has gained his object when he has done
something once, but a generous man does not care for what he has given
before. Even here the choice should be guided by the likelihood of the future
good to be derived from her union with either of them.
Of Gains and Losses, attendant Gains and Losses, and Doubts; and lastly, the different kinds of Courtesans
It sometimes happens that while gains are being sought for, or expected to be realized, losses only are the result of our efforts.
The causes of these losses are:
- Weakness of intellect
- Excessive love
- Excessive pride
- Excessive self conceit
- Excessive simplicity
- Excessive confidence
- Excessive anger
- Influence of evigenius
- The results of these losses are:
- Expense incurred without any result
- Destruction of future good fortune
- Stoppage of gains about to be realized
- Loss of what is already obtained
- Acquisition of a sour temper
- Becoming unamiable to every body
- Injury to health
- Loss of hair and other accidents
Now gain is of three kinds: gain of wealth, gain of religious merit, and gain of
pleasure; and similarly loss is of three kinds: loss of wealth, loss of religious
merit, and loss of pleasure. At the time when gains are sought for, if other
gains come along with them, these are called attendant gains. When gain is
uncertain, the doubt of its being a gain is called a simple doubt. When there is a doubt whether either of two things will happen or not, it is called a mixed
doubt. If while one thing is being done two results take place, it is called a
combination of two results, and if several results follow from the same action, it is called a combination of results on every side.
We shall now give examples of the above.
As already stated, gain is of three kinds, and loss, which is opposed to gain, is
also of three kinds.
When by living with a great man a courtesan acquires present wealth, and in
addition to this becomes acquainted with other people, and thus obtains a
chance of future fortune, and an accession of wealth, and becomes desirable to all, this is called a gain of wealth attended by other gain.
When by living with a man a courtesan simply gets money, this is called a gain of wealth not attended by any other gain.
On Personal Adornment, subjugating the hearts of others, and of tonic medicines
When a person fails to obtain the object of his desires by any of the ways
previously related, he should then have recourse to other ways of attracting
others to himself.
Now good looks, good qualities, youth, and liberality are the chief and most
natural means of making a person agreeable in the eyes of others. But in the
absence of these a man or a woman must have resort to artificial means, or to
art, and the following are some recipes that may be found useful.
An ointment made of the tabernamontana coronaria, the costus speciosus or
arabicus, and the flacourtia cataphracta, can be used as an unguent of
If a fine powder is made of the above plants, and applied to the wick of a lamp, which is made to burn with the oil of blue vitrol, the black pigment or lamp black produced therefrom, when applied to the eyelashes, has the effect of making a person look lovely.
The oil of the hogweed, the echites putescens, the sarina plant, the yellow
amaranth, and the leaf of the nymphae, if applied to the body, has the same
A black pigment from the same plants produces a similar effect.
By eating the powder of the nelumbrium speciosum, the blue lotus, and the
mesna roxburghii, with ghee and honey, a man becomes lovely in the eyes of
The above things, together with the tabernamontana coronaria, and the
xanthochymus pictorius, if used as an ointment, produce the same results.
If the bone of a peacock or of a hyena be covered with gold, and tied on the
right hand, it makes a man lovely in the eyes of other people.
In the same way, if a bead, made of the seed of the jujube, or of the conch
shell, be enchanted by the incantations mentioned in the Atharvana Veda, or by the incantations of those well skilled in the science of magic, and tied on the hand, it produces the same result as described above.
When a female attendant arrives at the age of puberty, her master should keep her secluded, and when men ardently desire her on account of her seclusion, and on account of the difficulty of approaching her, he should then bestow her hand on such a person as may endow her with wealth and happiness.
This is a means of increasing the loveliness of a person in the eyes of others.
Of the means of exciting Desire, and of the ways of enlarging the Lingam. Miscellaneous Experiments and Receipts
If a man is unable to satisfy a Hastini, or Elephant woman, he should have
recourse to various means to excite her passion. At the commencement he
should rub her yoni with his hand or fingers, and not begin to have intercourse with her until she becomes excited, or experiences pleasure. This is one way of exciting a woman. Or, he may make use of certain Apadravyas, or things which are put on or around the lingam to supplement its length or its thickness, so as to fit it to the yoni. In the opinion of Babhravya, these Apadravyas should be made of gold, silver, copper, iron, ivory, buffalo’s horn, various kinds of wood, tin or lead, and should be soft, cool, provocative of sexual vigour, and well fitted to serve the intended purpose. Vatsyayana, however, says that they may be made according to the natural liking of each individual.
The following are the different kinds of Apadravyas:
- `The armlet’ (Valaya) should be of the same size as the lingam, and should have its outer surface made rough with globules.
- `The couple’ (Sanghati) is formed of two armlets.
- `The bracelet’ (Chudaka) is made by joining three or more armlets, until they come up to the required length of the lingam.
- `The single bracelet’ is formed by wrapping a single wire around the lingam, according to its dimensions.
The Kantuka or Jalaka is a tube open at both ends, with a hole through it,
outwardly rough and studded with soft globules, and made to fit the side of the yoni, and tied to the waist.
You should know yoni or vagina closely so that you massage using your hand and tongue on the right part
When such a thing cannot be obtained, then a tube made of the wood apple, or tubular stalk of the bottle gourd, or a reed made soft with oiand extracts of
plants, and tied to the waist with strings, may be made use of, as also a row of
soft pieces of wood tied together.
The above are the things that can be used in connection with or in the place of the lingam.
The people of the southern countries think that true sexual pleasure cannot be
obtained without perforating the lingam, and they therefore cause it to be
pierced like the lobes of the ears of an infant pierced for earrings.
Now, when a young man perforates his lingam he should pierce it with a sharp instrument, and then stand in water so long as the blood continues to flow. At night, he should engage in sexual intercourse, even with vigour, so as to clean the hole. After this he should continue to wash the hole with decoctions, and increase the size by putting into it small pieces of cane, and the wrightia antidysenterica, and thus gradually enlarging the orifice. It may also be washed with liquorice mixed with honey, and the size of the hole increased by the fruit stalks of the simapatra plant. The hole should also be anointed with a small quantity of oil.
Part XI covers – Major copulation poses and sexual positions and more..