Diabetes is not contagious. Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. Diabetes means a disease where people have too much sugar in their blood. Diabetes mellitus is a disease where people have too much glucose (a kind of sugar) in the blood. Diabetes is likely to be underreported as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. About 65 percent of deaths among those with diabetes are attributed to heart disease and stroke. The cause of diabetes continues to be a mystery, although both genetics and environmental factors such as obesity and lack of exercise appear to play roles. There are 20.8 million children in the United States, or 7% of the population, who have diabetes. The three main types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes , type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, either the body does not produce enough insulin or the cells ignore the insulin. Insulin is necessary for the body to be able to use sugar. Sugar is the basic fuel for the cells in the body, and insulin takes the sugar from the blood into the cells.
Type-2 diabetes accounts for more than 90% of all diabetes worldwide. Type 2 diabetes usually occurs gradually. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is often associated with obesity and hypertension and elevated cholesterol , and with the condition Metabolic syndrome. People develop type 2 diabetes because the cells in the muscles, liver, and fat do not use insulin properly. It is also associated with acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome and a number of other endocrinological disorders. About 90–95% of all North American cases of diabetes are type 2, and about 20% of the population over the age of 65 has diabetes mellitus type 2. The fraction of type 2 diabetics in other parts of the world varies substantially, almost certainly for environmental and lifestyle reasons, though these are not known in detail. Family history and genetics play a large role in type 2 diabetes. Low activity level, poor diet, and excess body weight (especially around the waist) significantly increase your risk for type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is more prevalent among Hispanics, Native Americans, African Americans, and Asians/Pacific Islanders than in non-Hispanic whites. Type-2 diabetes is a lifelong illness, which generally starts in middle age or later part of life, but can start at any age. People who are overweight and inactive are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes doesn’t develop overnight. It usually begins with insulin resistance, where the body’s cells can’t use insulin properly. Glucose builds up in the bloodstream. The pancreas keeps on producing insulin to try and get the blood glucose level down. Over time the pancreas loses its ability to secrete insulin. This can sometimes result in the person with type 2 diabetes having to inject insulin every day. Obesity, aging, and lack of exercise can all play a role in developing insulin resistance and heightening the risk for diabetes. Treatment for type 2 diabetes is a lifelong commitment of blood sugar monitoring, healthy eating, regular exercise and, sometimes, diabetes medications or insulin therapy.
Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Tips
1. Type 2 is initially treated by adjustment in diet and exercise, and weight loss.
2. Meal planning includes choosing healthy foods, eating the right amount of food, and eating meals at the right time.
3. Regular exercise helps control the amount of glucose in the blood. It also helps burn excess calories and fat so you can manage your weight.
4. Exercise improves overall health by improving blood flow and blood pressure.
5. Oral sulfonylureas (like glimepiride, glyburide, and tolazamide) trigger the pancreas to make more insulin.
6. Biguanides (Metformin) tell the liver to decrease its production of glucose, which increases glucose levels in the blood stream.
7. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (such as acarbose) decrease the absorption of carbohydrates from the digestive tract, thereby lowering the after-meal glucose levels.
8. Thiazolidinediones (such as rosiglitazone) help insulin work better at the cell site.
9. Wear a diabetes identification bracelet and carry change or a cell phone for a phone call in case of emergency.
10. Drink extra fluids that do not contain sugar before, during, and after exercise.
11. Protect feet with comfortable, well-fitting shoes.
12. Stop smoking because it worsens blood flow to the feet.