Periodontitis, also known as pyorrhea, is a set of inflammatory diseases affecting the periodontium, i.e., the tissues that surround and support the teeth. Periodontitis involves progressive loss of the alveolar bone around the teeth, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Periodontitis is caused by microorganisms that adhere to and grow on the tooth's surfaces, along with an over-aggressive immune response against these microorganisms.
A diagnosis of periodontitis is established by inspecting the soft gum tissues around the teeth with a probe (i.e., a clinical examination) and by evaluating the patient's X-ray films (i.e. a radiographic examination), to determine the amount of bone loss around the teeth.
Once successful periodontal treatment has been completed, with or without surgery, an ongoing regimen of "periodontal maintenance" is required. This involves regular checkups and detailed cleanings every three months to prevent repopulation of periodontitis-causing microorganism, and to closely monitor affected teeth so early treatment can be rendered if disease recurs. Usually, periodontal disease exists due to poor plaque control, therefore if the brushing techniques are not modified, a periodontal recurrence is probable.
If nonsurgical therapy is found to have been unsuccessful in managing signs of disease activity, periodontal surgery may be needed to stop progressive bone loss and regenerate lost bone where possible. Many surgical approaches are used in treatment of advanced periodontitis, including open flap debridement and osseous surgery, as well as guided tissue regeneration and bone grafting. The goal of periodontal surgery is access for definitive calculus removal and surgical management of bony irregularities which have resulted from the disease process to reduce pockets as much as possible. Long-term studies have shown, in moderate to advanced periodontitis, surgically treated cases often have less further breakdown over time and, when coupled with a regular post-treatment maintenance regimen, are successful in nearly halting tooth loss in nearly 85% of patients.
- 1 Pyorrhoea (Periodontitis): Causes, Symptoms, Preventions and Ayurvedic Cure
Pyorrhoea (Periodontitis): Causes, Symptoms, Preventions and Ayurvedic Cure
Causes of Pyorrhoea
The most common cause for pyorrhoea is the accumulation of bacterial plaque. This occurs when a person does not follow adequate dental hygiene. In case you do not brush your teeth twice a day and floss regularly, you too could suffer from bacterial plaque, periodontal disease and eventually pyorrhoea. Therefore, in order to avoid this problem, make sure that you brush your teeth twice a day, gargle after every meal, floss once a day and use a mouthwash that can get rid of bacterial overgrowth in your mouth.
Using the incorrect brushing technique or brushing your teeth on a hurry does not protect you teeth from bacteria, infections and diseases. Therefore, take your time during this activity and make sure you are thorough. Flossing and gargling will get rid of food deposits in your mouth, which in turn will restrict the growth of bacteria. However, following these steps once in a while is totally useless and cannot prevent any dental problem. For best results you need to follow your dental routine to the tee, on a daily basis.
The health of your teeth also depends a great deal on your eating habits. In case you consume an excess amount of sugar and other unhealthy foods, the germs in your mouth can increase in number. The deficiency of certain vitamins and minerals in the body has also been known to cause dental diseases, like pyorrhoea.
Some of the other factors that can lead to pyorrhoea include:
- Gum injuries that are not treated
- Chronic illnesses
- Excess stress and prolonged tension
- Blood diseases
- Glandular disorder
Destructive Pyorrhoea (Periodontitis) diseases are:
- Chronic periodontitis
- Aggressive periodontitis
- Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic disease
- Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis
- Abscesses of the periodontium
Symptoms of Pyorrhoea (Periodontitis) may include
- Redness or bleeding of gums while brushing teeth, using dental floss or biting into hard food (e.g. apples) (though this may occur even in gingivitis, where there is no attachment loss)
- Gum swelling that recurs
- Spitting out blood after brushing teeth
- Halitosis, or bad breath, and a persistent metallic taste in the mouth
- Gingival recession, resulting in apparent lengthening of teeth. (This may also be caused by heavy-handed brushing or with a stiff tooth brush.)
- Deep pockets between the teeth and the gums (pockets are sites where the attachment has been gradually destroyed by collagen-destroying enzymes, known as collagenases)
- Loose teeth, in the later stages (though this may occur for other reasons, as well)
Patients should realize gingival inflammation and bone destruction are largely painless. Hence, people may wrongly assume painless bleeding after teeth cleaning is insignificant, although this may be a symptom of progressing periodontitis in that patient.
Prevention of Pyorrhoea (Periodontitis)
Daily oral hygiene measures to prevent periodontal disease include:
- Brushing properly on a regular basis (at least twice daily), with the patient attempting to direct the toothbrush bristles underneath the gum-line, helps disrupt the bacterial-mycotic growth and formation of subgingival plaque.
- Flossing daily and using interdental brushes (if the space between teeth is large enough), as well as cleaning behind the last tooth, the third molar, in each quarter
- Using an antiseptic mouthwash: Chlorhexidine gluconate-based mouthwash in combination with careful oral hygiene may cure gingivitis, although they cannot reverse any attachment loss due to periodontitis.
- Using periodontal trays to maintain dentist-prescribed medications at the source of the disease: The use of trays allows the medication to stay in place long enough to penetrate the biofilms where the micro-organism are found.
- Regular dental check-ups and professional teeth cleaning as required: Dental check-ups serve to monitor the person's oral hygiene methods and levels of attachment around teeth, identify any early signs of periodontitis, and monitor response to treatment.
- Microscopic evaluation of biofilm may serve as a guide to regain commensal health flora.
Pyorrhoea (Periodontitis) : Ayurvedic Natural Home Remedies
1. Rubbing Rock salt (Saindha namak) mixed with Mustard (Sarson) oil on the teeth regularly helps to cure Pyorrhoea.
2. Drink lot of Orange juice and Carrot juice regularly to cure Pyorrhoea.
3. Tender Mango leaves boiled in water and filtered and this decoction used as a mouth wash regularly cures Pyorrhoea.
4. Regularly Rubbing Camphor (Kapoor) mixed with Castor oil (Erand) on the gums twice a day helps to cure Pyorrhoea.
5. Chewing raw Spinach (Palak) and drinking Spinach juice regularly, helps to overcome Pyorrhoea.
6. Cardamom (Elaichi) boiled in water and filtered, and this decoction regularly used as a mouth wash cures Pyorrhoea.
7. Orange skin dried and powdered and this powder regularly rubbed on the teeth helps to cure Pyorrhoea.
8. Regularly applying mixture of Lemon juice and Honey on the teeth cures Pyorrhoea.
9. Regularly applying Sandal wood paste on the teeth helps to cure Pyorrhoea.
10. Chewing Lettuce leaves everyday after meals helps in preventing Pyorrhoea.
11. Chewing unripe Guava (Amrud) is good for teeth and gums. Chewing tender guava leaves helps to cure bleeding gums. Guava root bark boiled in water and filtered, and this decoction used as a mouth wash cures swollen gums.