With a warm friendly ambience India can be an affordable, enjoyable, confidential, and safe alternative to penile cancer surgery done in USA and UK. Indian hospitals at the metro cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai and Hyderabad provide low cost penile cancer surgery with the world class medical healthcare facilities. International patients feel safe in the hands of Indian doctors, because Indian doctors had proved them selves globally for their successful results. Penile cancer is a very rare form of cancer that occurs mostly in uncircumcised men (men with the foreskin, a piece of skin covering the head of their penis, intact). The penis is the external male genital organ, and consists of three chambers of spongy tissue that contain multiple blood vessels, nerves, and smooth muscle. The corpora cavernosa make up two of the chambers, and are located on both sides of the upper part of the penis. The corpus spongiosum is located below the corpora cavernosa and surrounds the urethra, the tube through which urine and semen exit the body at an opening called the meatus. At the tip of the penis, the corpora cavernosa expands to form the helmet, or glans. Number of international patients had got good results after having their penile cancer surgery in India.
- 1 Penile Cancer
- 1.1 Causes of Penile Cancer
- 1.2 Penile Cancer: Types of Standard Treatments
Causes of Penile Cancer
The majority of penile cancers develop from flat, scale-like skin cells called squamous cells. Like most other forms of nonmelanoma skin cancer, these tumors tend to grow slowly and are usually preceded by precancerous changes that may last for several years. When detected in the early stages, these tumors can usually be cured. Squamous cell penile cancers can develop anywhere on the organ, but most develop on the foreskin (in men who have not been circumcised) or on the glands. A very rare type of penile cancer called adenocarcinoma can develop in thee sweat glands in the skin of the penis, while another small percentage of penile cancer can develop from melanoma. Melanomas are considered more dangerous because they grow and spread more quickly. Usually melanomas develop on sun-exposed areas of the skin, though occasionally they develop on other areas not likely to be sunburned. The remaining cases of penile cancers develop from the blood vessels, smooth muscle and other connective tissues of the penis.
Symptoms of Penile Cancer
The most common symptom of penile cancer is a tender spot or an open sore at the tip of the penis. If left untreated, it will spread slowly across the skin and invade deeper layers of tissue. Pain and bleeding may develop as the cancer continues to grow. Penile cancer can spread into the lymph nodes and through the lymphatic (infection-fighting) system, spreading to the groin and other parts of the body.
Penile cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the penis.
The penis is a rod-shaped male reproductive organ that passes sperm and urine from the body. It contains two types of erectile tissue (spongy tissue with blood vessels that fill with blood to make an erection):
- Corpora cavernosa: The two columns of erectile tissue that form most of the penis.
- Corpus spongiosum: The single column of erectile tissue that forms a small portion of the penis. The corpus spongiosum surrounds the urethra (the tube through which urine and sperm pass from the body).
The erectile tissue is wrapped in connective tissue and covered with skin. The glans (head of the penis) is covered with loose skin called the foreskin.
different types of treatment for patients with penile cancer.
Different types of treatments are available for patients with penile cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.
Penile Cancer: Types of Standard Treatments
Penile Cancer Surgery
Surgery is the most common treatment for all stages of penile cancer. A doctor may remove the cancer using one of the following operations:
- Mohs microsurgery: A procedure in which the tumor is cut from the skin in thin layers. During the surgery, the edges of the tumor and each layer of tumor removed are viewed through a microscope to check for cancer cells. Layers continue to be removed until no more cancer cells are seen. This type of surgery removes as little normal tissue as possible and is often used to remove cancer on the skin. It is also called Mohs surgery.
- Laser surgery: A surgical procedure that uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) as a knife to make bloodless cuts in tissue or to remove a surface lesion such as a tumor.
- Cryosurgery: A treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue. This type of treatment is also called cryotherapy.
- Circumcision: Surgery to remove part or the entire foreskin of the penis.
- Wide local excision: Surgery to remove only the cancer and some normal tissue around it.
- Amputation of the penis: Surgery to remove part or all of the penis. If part of the penis is removed, it is a partial penectomy. If all of the penis is removed, it is a total penectomy.
Lymph nodes in the groin may be taken out during surgery.
Even if the doctor removes all the cancer that can be seen at the time of the surgery, some patients may be given chemotherapy or radiation therapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Treatment given after the surgery, to lower the risk that the cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy.
Penile Cancer Radiation therapy
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy.
- External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer.
- Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer.
The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat penile cancer.
Penile Cancer Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly onto the skin (topical chemotherapy) or into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
Topical chemotherapy may be used to treat stage 0 penile cancer.
Penile Cancer Biologic therapy
Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient's immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body's natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy. Topical biologic therapy with imiquimod may be used to treat stage 0 penile cancer.
Penile Cancer Self-care Tips
If detected early, cure rates for penile cancer are high. Patients should look for abnormal growths that resemble warts or irritated patches of skin that develop on the head of the penis or foreskin. Often these growths are benign (not cancerous), but may evolve into penile cancer is left untreated.
From Some years international patients are frequently coming to India for quality medical treatment, from developed countries like the US, UK and Canada, Now days the hospitals of penile cancer surgery in India are in boom due to the low cost and better medical healthcare facilities. There are a number of good reasons for the international patients to travel to India for penile cancer surgery: Cost of Treatment, quality of care, quality of equipment & facilities, quality of overall experience, prompt access to treatment, excellent Doctors with international experience, modern Hospitals with state of the art equipment, typical savings of 70% of treatment cost, exciting environment, complete treatment packages - you don’t go home after 3 days, dedicated nursing staff & deluxe rooms. Indian hospitals are recording increasing number of international patients for penile cancer surgery in India.
Cancers are a bit different to each other's but the fears and worries patients have is similar. The best option to reduce stress and focus on proper treatment of cancer is to know more about it.
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